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Naxalbari is the name of a village and a region in northern part of the state of West Bengal, India. Naxalbari comes under the jurisdiction of Darjeeling district with its sub divisional headquarter at Siliguri. Naxalbari became famous for the left wing revolt that took place in the late 1960s.
Naxalbari is located at 26.68°N 88.22°E. It has an average elevation of 152 metres (501 feet).
The stretch of land, where Naxalbari is situated, lies on the Terai region at the base of the Himalayas. To the west of Naxalbari, across the border river Mechi lies Nepal. The entire stretch of the land surrounding Naxalbari is covered by farm lands, tea estates and forests and small villages, consists of an area of 121 km². The large villages in the region are Buraganj, Hatighisha, Phansidewa and Naxalbari.
It became famous for being the site of a left-wing poor peasants uprising in 1967, which began with the "Land to tiller" slogan, but also comprising of violent retaliation acts by communists when suppressed forcibly for demanding their rights to land and livelihood. Such brutal acts were carried out by wealthy land lords and state police under the patronization of then chief minister Siddhartha Sankar Ray of the Indira Congress party.